Urinary Tract Infection - Causes, Symptoms And Home Remedies For It's Treatment
A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common kind of infection affecting the urinary tract. Urine, or pee, is the fluid that is filtered out of the bloodstream by the kidneys. Urine contains salts and waste products, but it doesn't normally contain bacteria. When bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and multiply in the urine, a UTI can result.
The two forms of lower urinary tract infection (UTI) are cystitis (infection of the bladder) and urethritis (infection of the urethra). They're nearly 10 times more common in females than in males (except in elderly males) and affect 10% to 20% of all females at least once.
In males, lower UTIs typically are associated with anatomic or physiologic abnormalities and, therefore, need close evaluation. Most UTIs respond readily to treatment but recurrence and resistant bacterial flare-up during therapy are possible.
What causes Urinary incontinence?
Most lower UTIs result from ascending infection by a single gram negative, enteric bacterium, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. In a patient with neurogenic bladder, with an indwelling urinary' catheter or a fistula between the intestine and bladder, a lower UTI may result from simultaneous infection with multiple pathogens.
Studies suggest that infection results from a breakdown in local defense mechanisms in the bladder that allows bacteria to invade the bladder mucosa and multiply. These bacteria can't be readily eliminated by normal urination.
Bacterial flare-up during treatment is usually caused by the pathogen's resistance to the prescribed antimicrobial therapy. Even a small number of bacteria (fewer than 10,000/ml) in a midstream urine specimen obtained during treatment casts doubt on the effectiveness of treatment.
In almost all patients, recurrent lower UTIs result from re infection by the same organism or by some new pathogen. In the remaining patients, recurrence reflects persistent infection, usually from renal calculi, chronic bacterial prostatitis, or a structural anomaly that's a source of infection. The high incidence of lower UTI among females probably occurs because natural anatomic features facilitate infection.
If untreated, chronic UTI can seriously damage the urinary tract lining. Infection of adjacent organs and structures (for example, pyelonephritis) may also occur. In this instance, prognosis is poor unless the patient responds to systemic treatment with multiple I. V. antibiotics.
Signs and symptoms of Urinary incontinence
The patient may complain of urinary urgency and frequency, dysooa, bladder cramps or spasms, itching, a feeling of warmth during urination, nocturia, and urethral discharge (in men). Other complaints include low back pain, malaise, nausea, vomiting, pain or tenderness over the bladder, chills, and flank pain. Inflammation of the bladder wall also causes hematuria and fever.
Tests used to diagnose lower UTI include:
Treatment of Urinary incontinence
Appropriate antimicrobials are the treatment of choice for most initial lower UTIs. A 7- to 10-day course of antibiotics is standard, but studies suggest that a single dose or a 3- to 5 day regimen may be sufficient to render the urine sterile. (Elderly patients may still need 7 to 10 days of antibiotics to fully benefit from treatment.) If a culture shows that urine still isn't sterile after 3 days of antibiotic therapy, bacterial resistance probably has occurred, and a different antibiotic will be prescribed.
A single dose of amoxicillin or cotrimoxazole may be effective for females with acute, uncomplicated UTI. A urine culture taken 1 to 2 weeks later will indicate whether the infection has been eradicated. Recurrent infections from infected renal calculi, chronic prostatitis, or structural abnormalities may necessitate surgery. Prostatitis also requires long-term antibiotic therapy. In patients without these predisposing conditions, long term,low-dose antibiotic therapy is the treatment of choice.
Special considerations and Prevention
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