Womens Health Club Womens Health Club
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Abortion
Acne Vulgaris
Acute Coronary Syndromes
Alopecia
Alzheimer's Disease
Amenorrhea
Anorexia Nervosa
Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
Anxiety Disorder Generalized
Bipolar Disorder
Breast Cancer
Bulimia Nervosa
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Cataract
Cervical Cancer
Chlamydia
Cholelithiasis
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Colorectal Cancer
Cytomegalovirus
Depression
Diabetes Mellitus
Dysfunctional
Uterine Bleeding
Dysmenorrhea
Dysuria
Ectopic Pregnancy
Endometriosis
Eye Stye
Fibromyalgia
Syndrome
Genital Herpes
Genital Warts
Gonorrhea
Herpes Zoster
Hirsutism
HIV & AIDS
Hyperparathyroidism
Hypertension
Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism
Infertility
Irritable Bowel
Syndrome
Kyphosis
Melasma
Menopause
Migraine Headache
Multiple Sclerosis
Myasthenia Gravis
Obsessive
Compulsive Disorder
Osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis
Panic Disorder
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic Pain
Psoriasis
Rosacea
Sarcoidosis
Scleroderma
Sjogren's Syndrome
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Stroke
Syphilis
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Urinary & Stress Incontinence
Urinary Tract Infection
Uterine Cancer
Uterine Leiomyomas
Uterine Prolapse
Vaginal Cancer


Toxic Shock Syndrome - Symptoms And It's Treatment

Alternative names :- TSS; Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome featured in general public news in the early 1980s when an epidemic occurred. It was linked to the prolonged use of highly absorbent tampons in menstruating women. Since then manufacturers have made changes to tampon production and the number of cases of tampon-induced toxic shock syndrome has dropped significantly.

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute bacterial infection caused by toxin-producing, penicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, such as TSS toxin-1 and staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C. The disease primarily affects menstruating women under age 30, especially teenagers, and is associated with continuous use of tampons during menses. Five percent of all cases are fatal.

What causes Toxic shock syndrome?

TSS has been linked to the use of tampons and intra vaginal contraceptive devices, such as the diaphragm and the sponge. Although tampons and intravaginal contraceptive devices are clearly implicated in TSS, their exact role is uncertain. Theoretically, they may contribute to development of TSS by:

  • introducing S. aureusinto the vagina during insertion (insertion with fingers instead of the supplied applicator increases the risk)
  • using high-absorbency tampons causes irritation and vaginal dryness, thereby increasing toxin production (occurs especially with rayon tampons)
  • traumatizing the vaginal mucosa during insertion, thus leading to infection
  • providing a favorable environment for the growth of S. aureus.

Although TSS is more closely related to the use of high-absorbency tampons, all tampons are associated with TSS risk. Fortunately, the incidence of TSS has declined significantly since its peak in the mid-l980s, probably due to advances in the way the FDA regulates tampon materials and absorbency as well as withdrawal from the market of those products most associated with TSS. When TSS isn't related to menstruation, it seems to be linked to other S. aureus infections, such as from skin abscesses, osteomyelitis, and post surgical infections.

Signs and symptoms of Toxic shock syndrome

At first, signs and symptoms of TSS may mimic the signs and symptoms of the flu, making diagnosis difficult. Typically, TSS produces sudden onset of intense muscle pains, fever over 104° F (40° C), chills, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, decreased level of consciousness, rigors, conjunctival hyperemia, and vaginal hyperemia and discharge. These symptoms usually occur during or shortly after menstruation. Severe hypotension occurs with hypovolemic shock. Within a few hours of onset, a deep red rash develops - especially on the palms and soles - and later desquamates. Major complications include persistent neuropsychological abnormalities, mild renal failure, rash, and cyanotic arms and legs. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may also occur.

 
The mortality rate of toxic shock syndrome is approximately 5-15%, and recurrences have been reported in as many as 30-40% of cases. Mortality rates of STSS are more than 5 times higher than in toxic shock syndrome.
Diagnosis tests information

Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and the presence of at least three of the following:

  • GI effects, including vomiting and profuse diarrhea
  • muscular effects, with severe myalgias or a fivefold or greater increase in creatine kinase levels
  • mucous membrane effects such as frank hyperemia
  • renal involvement with elevated blood urea nitrogen or creatinine levels (at least twice the normal levels)
  • liver involvement with elevated bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, or alanine aminotransferase levels (at least twice the normal levels)
  • blood involvement with signs of thrombocytopenia and a platelet count of less than 100,000/mm3
  • central nervous system effects, such as disorientation without focal signs.

In addition, isolation of S. aureus from vaginal discharge or lesions helps support the diagnosis. Negative results on blood tests for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, leptospirosis, and measles help rule out these disorders.

Treatment of Toxic shock syndrome

Treatment consists of I.V antistaphylococcal antibiotics that are betalactamase resistant, such as oxacillin and nafcillin. To treat shock and prevent organ damage, expect to replace fluids with saline solution and colloids. Pulmonary, cardiac, and renal support may also be required.

Special considerations and Prevention

Monitor the patient's vital signs frequently.

  • Administer antibiotics slowly and adhere to a strict administration schedule. Be sure to watch for signs of penicillin allergy.
  • Menstrual TSS can be prevented by avoiding the use of highly absorbent tampons
  • Obtain specimens of vaginal and cervical secretions for culture of S. aureus.
  • Remove any tampons from the patient's body immediately.


Bookmark and Share

|| Home || Contact Us ||


Disclaimer: Womens-health-club.com website is designed for educational purposes only. It is not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease. Always take the advice of professional health care for specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment. We will not be liable for any complications, or other medical accidents arising from the use of any information on this web site.