Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Alternative names :- Cancer - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is an invasive tumor that arises from keratinizing epidermal cells and has a high metastatic potential to distant parts of the body. It's the second most common skin cancer, the third most common cancer in men, and the fourth most common cancer in women. It usually occurs in fair-skinned white males over age 60. Outdoor employment and residence in a sunny, warm climate (southwestern United States and Australia, for example) greatly increase the lisk of developing sec. However, the incidence of see affecting the skin and oral cavities in women is rising as more women are frequenting tanning salons, drinking alcoho. and smoking.
Patients with fair skin and a history of sun exposure (e.g., sunburn) are at increases risk for SCC, as well as other forms of skin cancer. These people lack pigmentation, which protects the skin from damaging ultraviolet rays.
What causes Squamous cell carcinoma ?
Predisposing factors associated with see include overexposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays, the presence of premalignant lesions (such as actinic keratosis or Bowen's disease), X-ray therapy, ingestion of herbicides containing arsenic, chronic skin irritation and inflammation, exposure to local carcinogens (such as tar and oil), and hereditary diseases (such as xeroderma pigmentosum and albinism). Women who use tanning lamps and tanning beds were also found to be at increased risk for see - 2 % times the risk of women who didn't use them. Smoking has recently been linked to skin cancer and may increase the risk of developing skin cancer threefold, independent of age, gender, sun exposure, and other predisposing factors
Signs and symptoms of Squamous cell carcinoma
SCC begins in the upper part of the epidermis and commo;l1ly develops on sun-exposed areas of the body, such as the face, ears, dorsa of -the hands and forearms, and other SU$1-damaged areas. Lesions on sun-daOlaged skin tend to be less invasive and .ess likely tometastasize than lesioos on unexposed skin. Squamous cell lesions may also begin within scars and skin ulcers that aren't neces:sariIy in sunexposed areas. Notable ,.exceptions to this tendency are squamous cell lesions on the lower lip and the ears. These are almost invariably markedly invasive metastatic lesions with a generally poor prognosis.
Transformation from a premalignant lesion to see may begin with induration and inflammation of the preexisting lesion. When see arises from normal skin, the nodule grows slowly on a firm, indurated base. If untreated, this nodule eventually ulcerates and invades underlying tissues. Metastasis can occur to the regional lymphnodes, producing characteristic systemic symptoms of pain, malaise, fatigue, weakness, and anorexia.
An excisional biopsy provides definitive diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. Other appropriate laboratory tests depend on systemic
Treatment of Squamous cell carcinoma
The size, shape, location! and invasiveness of a squamous cell tumor and the condition of the underlying tissue determine the treatment method used; a deeply invasive tumor may require a combination of techniques. All major treatment methods have excellent cure rates. In general, the prognosis is better with a well-differentiated lesion than with a poorly differentiated one in an unusual location. Depending on the lesion, treatment may consist of:
Special considerations and Prevention
The care plan for patients with SCC should emphasize meticulous wOund care, emotional support, and thorough patient instruction:
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